GOVERNMENT OF INDIAGOVERNMENT OF INDIA
A Digital India Initiative

Economic and Productive Aspects of the Prison Inmates

September 17, 2015

prison production BANNER Image

There are various aspects of the life of prison inmates. Some of the aspects that are more significant have been considered in this study. The study focuses on economic, financial and productive aspects of the prison inmates.

The study analyses the various datasets and information relating to the economic, financial and productive aspects of the persons incarcerated in the prisons across the country. The main datasets/information used for this analysis are as follows:

  • Prison inmate population by sex and age-group at the end of the reference year during 2013
  • Educational standard of inmates at the end of the year 2013
  • Details of educational facilities provided to prisoners during 2013
  • Prison inmates trained under different vocational trainings
  • Details of wages payments of prisoners
  • Kinds of goods/vocational activities and gross value of goods produced by inmates during 2013

Moreover, various visualisations related to the important aspects of the prison inmates’ life and their productive activities during their incarceration period in the prison, also vividly depict the economic and productive aspects of prison inmates.

The Population of the Prison Inmates:

The number of prison inmates in India at the end of 2013 was 411992. Out of these, the number of males was 393804, while the number of females was 18188. Thus, the percentage of male prison inmates was 95.59%, while the percentage of females was 4.41%.

View in Visualization Tool

Source: Prison Statistics India 2013, National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB)

 

The details of prison inmates population are as under:

State/UT Male Female Total
Andhra Pradesh 13414 899 14313
Arunachal Pradesh 90 2 92
Assam 7957 306 8263
Bihar 30159 1100 31259
Chhatisgarh 15019 821 15840
Goa 495 28 523
Gujarat 11481 577 12058
Haryana 16814 830 17644
Himachal Pradesh 1903 96 1999
Jammu & Kashmir 2265 87 2352
Jharkhand 17370 850 18220
Karnataka 13534 584 14118
Kerala 7205 190 7395
Madhya Pradesh 33622 1086 34708
Maharashtra 25841 1559 27400
Manipur 625 35 660
Meghalaya 839 11 850
Mizoram 804 66 870
Nagaland 475 12 487
Orissa 13832 641 14473
Punjab 25985 1464 27449
Rajasthan 18631 662 19293
Sikkim 222 8 230
Tamilnadu 14014 707 14721
Tripura 876 25 901
Uttar Pradesh 80206 3312 83518
Uttaranchal 3663 182 3845
West Bengal 21385 1393 22778
A & N Islands 1141 8 1149
Chandigarh 637 24 661
D & N Haveli 35 0 35
Daman & Diu 55 1 56
Delhi 12937 615 13552
Lakshadweep 0 0 0
Pondicherry 273 7 280
All India 393804 18188 411992

https://data.gov.in/catalog/prison-inmate-population-sex-and-age-group#web_catalog_tabs_block_10

Uttar Pradesh was leading among the States/UTs of India. The top 5 States/UTs besides Uttar Pradesh in terms of number of prison inmates at the end of the year 2013 were: Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Punjab and Maharashtra.

The number of prison inmates in Uttar Pradesh at the end of 2013 was 83518. Out of these, the number of males was 80206, while the number of females was 3312. Thus, the percentage of male prison inmates was 96.03%, while the percentage of females was 3.97%.

The number of prison inmates in Madhya Pradesh at the end of 2013 was 34708. Out of these, the number of males was 33622, while the number of females was 1086. Thus, the percentage of male prison inmates was 96.87%, while the percentage of females was 3.13%. The number of prison inmates in Bihar at the end of 2013 was 31259. Out of these, the number of males was 30159, while the number of females was 1100. Thus, the percentage of male prison inmates was 96.48%, while the percentage of females was 3.52%.

The number of prison inmates in Punjab at the end of 2013 was 27449. Out of these, the number of males was 25985, while the number of females was 1464. Thus, the percentage of male prison inmates was 94.67%, while the percentage of females was 5.33%. The number of prison inmates in Maharashtra at the end of 2013 was 27400. Out of these, the number of males was 25841, while the number of females was 1559. Thus, the percentage of male prison inmates was 94.31%, while the percentage of females was 5.69%.

Educational Qualifications of Prison Inmates:

There were many prison inmates who were well qualified and a good number of them had even post-graduate or technical qualifications.

The total number of the prison inmates having the qualification of post-graduate at the end of the year 2013 in whole of India was 7173. Out of the 7173 post-graduate prison inmates, the number of males was 6937 (96.71%) and number of females was 236 (3.29%).

View in Visualization Tool

Source: Prison Statistics India 2013, National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB)

 

Top 20 State/UTs in terms of the prison inmates having the qualification of post-graduate at the end of the year 2013 were: Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Jharkhand, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Delhi, Gujarat, Orissa, West Bengal, Kerala, Uttaranchal, Jammu & Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh.

Among the top 5 State/UTs in terms of the prison inmates having the qualification of post-graduate, the ratio of males was more than 90%. The number of post-graduate prison inmates in Uttar Pradesh at the end of 2013 was 1944. The number of males was 1903 (97.89%) and number of females was 41 (2.11%). The number of post-graduate prison inmates in Punjab at the end of 2013 was 924. The number of males was 871 (94.26%) and number of females was 53 (5.74%). The number of post-graduate prison inmates in Maharashtra at the end of 2013 was 782. The number of males was 768 (98.21%) and number of females was 14 (1.79%). The number of post-graduate prison inmates in Rajasthan at the end of 2013 was 753. The number of males was 751 (99.73%) and number of females was 2 (0.27%). The number of post-graduate prison inmates in Madhya Pradesh at the end of 2013 was 402. The number of males was 386 (96.02%) and number of females was 16 (3.98%).

The details of educational qualifications (Higher/Technical Education) of prison inmates are as under:

STATE/UT Graduate Post-Graduate Holding technical degree/diploma etc.
Andhra Pradesh 646 204 205
Arunachal Pradesh 6 1 0
Assam 232 14 16
Bihar 1432 222 103
Chhatisgarh 531 244 84
Goa 27 7 15
Gujarat 659 181 143
Haryana 973 184 217
Himachal Pradesh 85 18 15
Jammu & Kashmir 98 19 3
Jharkhand 969 231 222
Karnataka 523 243 335
Kerala 102 27 102
Madhya Pradesh 1232 402 142
Maharashtra 1450 782 459
Manipur 23 7 2
Meghalaya 8 0 1
Mizoram 20 0 0
Nagaland 8 0 0
Orissa 613 160 25
Punjab 3030 924 598
Rajasthan 1573 753 372
Sikkim 6 0 0
Tamilnadu 883 307 483
Tripura 21 2 2
Uttar Pradesh 5440 1944 471
Uttaranchal 192 24 15
West Bengal 825 72 78
A & N Islands 14 5 11
Chandigarh 51 9 3
D & N Haveli 5 2 3
Daman & Diu 1 1 0
Delhi 702 184 124
Lakshadweep 0 0 0
Pondicherry 5 0 1
All India 22385 7173 4250

https://data.gov.in/catalog/educational-standard-inmates#web_catalog_tabs_block_10

Educational Facilities provided to Prison Inmates:

Prison Authorities also arranged facilities for providing various types of education to the prison inmates for increasing the competence and the betterment of their life inside prison and afterwards, outside the prison.

The following visualisation shows the top 10 states/UTs providing elementary education to prison inmates:

View in Visualization Tool

Source: Prison Statistics India 2013, National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB)

 

The following visualisation shows the states/UT wise higher education facilities provided to prison inmates in 2013:

View in Visualization Tool

Source: Prison Statistics India 2013, National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB)

 

The following visualisation shows the states/UT wise computer education facilities provided to prison inmates in 2013:

View in Visualization Tool

Source: Prison Statistics India 2013, National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB)

 

The details of educational facilities provided to prison inmates are as under:

State/UT No. of Inmates benefitted by Elementary Education No. of Inmates benefitted by Adult Education No. of Inmates benefitted by Higher Education No. of Inmates benefitted by Computer Course
Andhra Pradesh 9480 13758 672 170
Arunachal Pradesh 0 0 0 0
Assam 676 750 14 30
Bihar 1693 3013 125 1417
Chhatisgarh 1664 1803 192 103
Goa 7 0 6 88
Gujarat 2310 3133 875 966
Haryana 1131 774 1112 243
Himachal Pradesh 33 80 26 0
Jammu & Kashmir 102 124 33 34
Jharkhand 3008 2595 138 574
Karnataka 633 568 170 12
Kerala 156 96 24 250
Madhya Pradesh 1978 9574 301 151
Maharashtra 346 2743 882 1330
Manipur 0 0 0 0
Meghalaya 1 30 0 0
Mizoram 0 25 18 0
Nagaland 0 0 0 0
Orissa 622 613 277 384
Punjab 325 606 112 168
Rajasthan 1050 237 64 38
Sikkim 0 0 0 0
Tamilnadu 68 1664 757 478
Tripura 15 13 4 2
Uttar Pradesh 7876 8093 1353 212
Uttaranchal 205 42 29 72
West Bengal 2023 1889 123 460
A & N Islands 167 45 11 0
Chandigarh 0 265 85 0
D & N Haveli 0 0 0 0
Daman & Diu 0 0 0 0
Delhi 1458 1187 908 174
Lakshadweep 0 0 0 0
Pondicherry 0 0 0 0
All India 37027 53720 8311 7356

https://data.gov.in/catalog/details-educational-facilities-provided-prisoners#web_catalog_tabs_block_10

 

The following visualisation shows the states/UT wise vocational education facilities provided to prison inmates in 2013:

View in Visualization Tool

Source: Prison Statistics India 2013, National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB)

 

The total number of prison inmates trained under different vocational trainings during the year 2013 in India was 65471. Punjab was leading among the States/UTs of India. The top 5 States/UTs besides Punjab in terms of number of prison inmates trained under different vocational trainings during the year 2013 in India were: Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Delhi and Gujarat.

The total number of prison inmates trained under different vocational trainings during the year 2013 in Punjab was 10352. Thus, prison inmates of Punjab accounted for 15.81% of the total number of prison inmates trained under different vocational trainings during the year 2013 in India (i.e. 65471 prison inmates).

The total number of prison inmates trained under different vocational trainings during the year 2013 in Madhya Pradesh was 9944. Thus, prison inmates of Madhya Pradesh accounted for 15.19% of the total number of prison inmates trained under different vocational trainings in India. The total number of prison inmates trained under different vocational trainings during the year 2013 in Rajasthan was 6475. Thus, prison inmates of Rajasthan accounted for 9.89% of the total number of prison inmates trained under different vocational trainings in India.

The total number of prison inmates trained under different vocational trainings during the year 2013 in Delhi was 5666. Thus, prison inmates of Delhi accounted for 8.65% of the total number of prison inmates trained under different vocational trainings in India. The total number of prison inmates trained under different vocational trainings during the year 2013 in Gujarat was 4714. Thus, prison inmates of Gujarat accounted for 7.2% of the total number of prison inmates trained under different vocational trainings in India.

Wages paid to Prison Inmates

The following visualisation shows the states/UT wise average wages provided to unskilled convicts in prisons in 2013:

View in Visualization Tool

Source: Prison Statistics India 2013, National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB)

 

The average wages paid per day to unskilled convicts vary amongst various states/UTs. The average wages paid per day to unskilled convicts in India in 2013 was Rs. 42.71.

The top 10 states/UTs paying the highest wages to the unskilled convicts were: Himachal Pradesh with Rs. 150 (which was 351.21% of the all India average wage paid to unskilled convicts i.e. Rs. 42.71); Puducherry with Rs. 150 (which was 351.21% of the all India average wage); Bihar with Rs. 80 (which was 187.31% of the all India average wage); Karnataka with Rs. 70 (which was 163.9% of the all India average wage); Delhi with Rs. 70 (which was 163.9% of the all India average wage); Tamil Nadu with Rs. 60 (which was 140.48% of the all India average wage); Arunachal Pradesh with Rs. 55 (which was 128.78% of the all India average wage); Assam with Rs. 55 (which was 128.78% of the all India average wage); Goa with Rs. 50 (which was 117.07% of the all India average wage) and Madhya Pradesh with Rs. 50 (which was 117.07% of the all India average wage).

The 5 states/UTs paying the lowest wages to the unskilled convicts were: Rajasthan with Rs. 20; Tripura with Rs. 18; Jharkhand with Rs. 14; Mizoram with Rs. 10 and Manipur with Rs. 8.

The state-wise details of wages of prison inmates are as under:

State/UT Wages paid per day to Skilled convicts (in Rs.) Wages paid per day to Semi Skilled convicts (in Rs.) Wages paid per day to Unskilled convicts (in Rs.)
Andhra Pradesh 70 50 30
Arunachal Pradesh 75 0 55
Assam 75 0 55
Bihar 121 87 80
Chhattisgarh 30 0 25
Goa 80 60 50
Gujarat 35 30 25
Haryana 40 25 20
Himachal Pradesh 0 0 150
Jammu and Kashmir 24 24 24
Jharkhand 46 28 14
Karnataka 90 80 70
Kerala 53 35 21
Madhya Pradesh 55 0 50
Maharashtra 40 35 25
Manipur 12 10 8
Meghalaya 70 60 50
Mizoram 15 12 10
Nagaland 0 0 0
Odisha 40 0 40
Punjab 35 30 25
Rajasthan 40 30 20
Sikkim 40 30 30
Tamil Nadu 100 80 60
Tripura 25 21 18
Uttar Pradesh 40 30 25
Uttarakhand 45 40 30
West Bengal 35 30 26
Andaman and Nicobar Islands 37 0 28
Chandigarh 60 50 40
Dadra and Nagar Haveli 0 0 0
Daman and Diu 0 0 0
Delhi 99 81 70
Lakshadweep 0 0 0
Puducherry 170 160 150

 

https://data.gov.in/catalog/details-wages-payments-prisoners#web_catalog_tabs_block_10

Goods Produced by Prison Inmates

The total gross value of sale proceeds/earnings from various vocational activities of the prison inmates during the year 2013 in India was Rs. 14432.93 Lakhs.

Gross Value of Goods Produced by Prison Inmates during 2013 is shown below:

View in Visualization Tool

Source: Prison Statistics India 2013, National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB)

 

Delhi was leading among the States/UTs of India. The top 5 States/UTs besides Delhi in terms of total gross value of sale proceeds/earnings from various vocational activities of the prison inmates during the year 2013 in India were: Kerala, Bihar, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra.

The gross value of sale proceeds/earnings from various vocational activities of the prison inmates during the year 2013 in Delhi was Rs. 2792.86 Lakhs.  Thus, prison inmates of Delhi accounted for 19.35% of the total gross value of sale proceeds/earnings from various vocational activities of the prison inmates during the year 2013 in India.

The gross value of sale proceeds/earnings from various vocational activities of the prison inmates during the year 2013 in Kerala was Rs. 2509.72 Lakhs.  Thus, prison inmates of Kerala accounted for 17.39% of the total gross value of sale proceeds/earnings from various vocational activities of the prison inmates during the year 2013 in India.

The gross value of sale proceeds/earnings from various vocational activities of the prison inmates during the year 2013 in Bihar was Rs. 1423.06 Lakhs.  Thus, prison inmates of Bihar accounted for 9.86% of the total gross value of sale proceeds/earnings from various vocational activities of the prison inmates during the year 2013 in India.The gross value of sale proceeds/earnings from various vocational activities of the prison inmates during the year 2013 in Tamil Nadu was Rs. 1293.55 Lakhs.  Thus, prison inmates of Tamil Nadu accounted for 8.96% of the total gross value of sale proceeds/earnings from various vocational activities of the prison inmates during the year 2013 in India.

The gross value of sale proceeds/earnings from various vocational activities of the prison inmates during the year 2013 in Maharashtra was Rs. 1248.06 Lakhs.  Thus, prison inmates of Maharashtra accounted for 8.65% of the total gross value of sale proceeds/earnings from various vocational activities of the prison inmates during the year 2013 in India.

The details of the top 20 vocational activities in terms of total gross value of sale proceeds/earnings from amongst various vocational activities of the prison inmates are as under:

Vocation/Activity Sum of Gross Value of Sale Proceeds / Earning (In Rs.)
Industrial 250211335
Chappaty And Food Products 222855245
Carpentry Unit 180132075
Jail Industries 141919000
Agriculture 122503916
Tihar Baking School 55415502
Weaving 43540000
Handmade Paper 40290000
Steel Unit 33069399
Small Industries 27008733
Carpentry/Canning/Welding 19507089
Chemical Unit 18143111
Manufacturing Department 16074119
Power Loom Industry 15224577
Boot 14658000
Paper Unit 13800981
Industry 12866000
Weaving Unit 12694386
Soap Phenyl Industry 10141370
Jail Manufactory 9940367

 

https://data.gov.in/catalog/kinds-goodsvocational-activities-and-gross-value-goods-produced-inmates#web_catalog_tabs_block_10

Conclusion

It is apparent from the above analysis that prison inmates are not only producing various goods but also preparing themselves, in terms of skills acquisition or productive activities, to pursue gainful employment after they are released from prison.This will not only help them in earning their livelihood in the outside open economy but also facilitate their integration with mainstream workforce in the country. It will also help in restricting the recidivism of the prison inmates if they become unproductive and lose all skills to gainfully engage in some economic activity once they are free from prison.

Total Comments - 0

Leave a Reply

top